You will have 2 hours and 30 minutes to complete this exam. You must answer every question presented. A passing grade is 80% or higher. NameEmail1) What are the 3 major types of running shoes? Stability, motion control, minimalist Motion control, cushioning/neutral, stability Cushioning/neutral, motion control, motion enhancement Stability, cushioning/neutral, minimalist2) Running is the second most popular form of physical activity (second to walking), however many people say they can’t run. If a client says to you, “I can’t run,” how would you respond? Well, running is the most effective way to lose weight, so if you want to lose weight, you should try to run. Why do you say you can’t run? Is it difficult for you, or is there something physical that prevents you from running? Unless you have a specific contraindication to running, like heart disease or a knee replacement, you probably can run since humans evolved to run. If you want to experience the many benefits of running, including a better sex life, let’s take it one step at a time and start by mixing running with walking. How does that sound? You’re right. You can’t run. You might want to try some other form of exercise. Let me show you the Spinning room. Would you like to try that? 3) What is daily resting metabolic rate for most people? 700 to 900 calories 2,000 to 2,500 calories 1,200 to 1,500 calories 3,000 to 3,500 calories4) Following a very long run, muscle soreness is caused by lactic acid buildup loss of myofibrils microtears of muscle fibers increased androgen levels 5) The acidosis (lactate) threshold is the maximum running speed above which lactate accumulates and acidosis occurs the maximum running speed below which lactate accumulates and acidosis occurs the point at which lactate reaches its highest value while running the point at which lactate reaches its lowest value while running6) What is the most potent method for improving VO2max? interval training with work periods of 3 to 5 minutes at near maximal heart rate interval training with work periods of 30 seconds all-out continuous exercise of at least 60 minutes interval training with recovery intervals of 30 seconds 7) The following are all adaptations to endurance training except increased glycogen storage increased stroke volume decreased muscle mitochondria increased capillarization around muscle fibers 8) Which one of these does not happen when running out of carbohydrate on long runs? muscles rely more on fat liver makes more glucose from lactate and amino acids more carbohydrate is stored in the muscles following the long run muscles rely more on anaerobic metabolism 9) Running economy is the volume of oxygen used to maintain a specific submaximal speed the smoothness of your running movements the maximum amount of energy that you can generate aerobically the volume of carbon dioxide that you exhale while running10) Improvements in fitness occur while you're recovering following the workout during the workout when you are eating protein neither during the workout nor during the recovery following the workout11) Why do slow-twitch fibers have many capillaries? because they depend of fat for energy to facilitate the removal of lactate from the muscles because they are anaerobic to facilitate the diffusion of oxygen into the mitochondria12) Running at the acidosis (lactate) threshold would correspond to: 60 to 70% max heart rate and 6 on a scale of 1 to 10 95 to 100% max heart rate and 9 on a scale of 1 to 10 80 to 85% max heart rate and 7 on a scale of 1 to 10 70 to 75% max heart rate and 6 on a scale of 1 to 1013) Why are recovery intervals so important during an interval workout? They allow your clients to take a break from the hard work. Stroke volume increases during the recovery periods, improving cardiac performance They allow your clients to maintain the intensity during the work periods. They give your clients a chance to measure their heart rates to make sure they are working hard enough. 14) Exercise performance declines with how much of a percent loss of body weight due to fluid loss? 6 to 8 percent 2 to 3 percent 3 to 4 percent 8 to 10 percent15) Which of the following is not true regarding periodization? Sufficient rest is planned into the training program to promote supercompensation to the training stimulus. Training typically progresses from low intensity/high volume to high intensity/low volume. All components of fitness are trained at the same time. The training program is broken down into phases of training.16) If someone is training for a race but is going on vacation and is not able to maintain his or her consistent training while away, which of the following factors should be maintained to maintain fitness? intensity specificity frequency (number of days of running per week) duration (amount of time spent running)17) Which of the following workouts would best train anaerobic glycolysis? run 6 x 1 minute fast with 2 minutes rest walk 30 minutes @ 60% max heart rate run 30 minutes @ 70% max heart rate run 4 x 5 minutes with 3 minutes rest18) Which of the following workouts would best train the aerobic system? run 60 minutes @ 75% max heart rate run 6 x 1 minute fast with 2 minutes rest lift 3 sets of 15 reps @ 70% 1RM lift 5 sets of 20 reps @ 60% 1RM19) How much does a client need to drink during exercise to prevent significant dehydration? one gallon (3.78 liters) every 30 minutes clients don’t need to drink during exercise, only afterward about 200 milliliters every 15 to 20 minutes, aiming to match fluid intake to equal sweat loss the amount of fluid is based on the person’s body weight20) Which of the following does not describe interval training? running at 80% of max heart rate for 30 minutes distance of each hard work period, intensity, duration and type of rest in between work periods, and number of repetitions repeated attainment of peak values of stroke volume work, rest, work, rest, work, rest21) Which 3 factors (referred to as the female athlete triad) increase a female runner's chance for bone injuries? osteoporosis, disordered eating, low calcium intake low body fat, amenorrhea, low vitamin D intake osteoporosis, amenorrhea, anemia osteoporosis, disordered eating, amenorrhea 22) The most important determinant of BMD in women is calcium estrogen vitamin D age23) Which variables can be manipulated with interval training? time (or distance) of each work period, time of each recovery period, and number of repetitions time (or distance) of each work period, intensity of each work period, time of each recovery period, and number of repetitions time (or distance) of each work period, intensity of each work period, and number of repetitions intensity of each work period, time of each recovery period, and number of repetitions24) How does increasing weekly running volume (i.e., number of miles/kilometers) increase VO2max? by increasing maximum heart rate by increasing maximum cardiac output by increasing maximum stroke volume by increasing muscle metabolic factors that influence oxygen uptake25) What is the purpose of anaerobic training? to increase buffering capacity of acidosis and increase glycolytic enzyme activity to increase VO2max to increase maximum stroke volume to increase aerobic enzyme activity26) Which of these does NOT include a strategy to burn more calories? run more miles, run intervals, run twice a day run longer, consume more calories run more miles, vary workouts run longer, vary workouts27) What are the three main physiological determinants of distance running performance? maximum lactate value, maximum heart rate, hemoglobin concentration maximum heart rate, hemoglobin concentration, mitochondrial content of muscles running economy, lactate threshold, maximum heart rate running economy, VO2max, lactate threshold28) The muscles’ primary fuel when running faster than the acidosis (lactate) threshold is fat vitamins protein carbohydrate29) What is the main effect of an enlarged left ventricle caused by endurance training? a lower cardiac output a lower VO2max a greater blood pressure a greater stroke volume 30) What is VO2max? the maximum volume of oxygen consumed by the body per kilogram of body weight per minute the maximum velocity at which a person can exercise aerobically the minimum amount of blood needed by the muscles during exercise the maximum volume of carbon dioxide that can be consumed by the body per kilogram of body weight per minute31) What is the most common reason runners get injured? Too much running on hard surfaces. Not running with proper form. Increasing the volume or intensity of running too quickly for their bodies to adapt. Wearing the wrong shoes for their feet.32) What are the most important factors to focus on when training for a half-marathon or marathon? anaerobic power & lactate threshold lactate threshold & speedwork weekly volume, long runs, & anaerobic capacity weekly volume, long runs, & lactate threshold33) What is/are the most important factor(s) when choosing running shoes? The amount your foot pronates. The surface you run on. How comfortable the shoe is and the amount your foot pronates. The number of miles you run per week and the surface you run on.34) What are the main causes of fatigue in the marathon? Muscle fiber damage and dehydration Glycogen depletion and acidosis Muscle fiber damage and glycogen depletion Acidosis and muscle creatine phosphate depletion35) What are the benefits of running more miles/kilometers per week to improve running performance? Increase in blood volume, greater storage of muscle glycogen, proliferation of capillaries surrounding muscle fibers, increase in mitochondria. Increase in speed, greater recruitment of fast-twitch muscle fibers, increase in glycolytic enzymes. Increase in muscle size, greater storage of fat for energy, increase in heart size, increase in blood volume. Increase in muscle buffering of acidosis, increase in speed, increase in muscle power, greater storage of fat for energy. 36) What is the purpose of a VO2max interval workout? To increase the availability of glucose for energy. To store more fuel in the muscles. To improve speed by recruiting fast-twitch muscle fibers. To increase cardiovascular system’s ability to pump blood and oxygen to working muscles.37) What is the best way to increase your client’s weekly running volume (# of miles/kilometers)? By no more than 10 percent each week. After running the same number of miles/kilometers for a few weeks and then increasing by no more than one mile/two kilometers per day per week. By 10 miles (16 kilometers) each week to stimulate adaptation. By running most of the miles/kilometers on soft surfaces to avoid injury.38) What does the term polarity mean in reference to training? Run hard on your hard days to provide stress and run easy on your easy days to recover. Alternate running slow and fast every day. Run in different directions to work all of your muscles. Run at a moderate speed on most days to maximize improvement. 39) What is the most important strategic issue in the marathon? Staying hydrated throughout the race. Starting at a pace that can be maintained for the entire distance. Making sure you go to the bathroom before the start. Consuming protein during the race to avoid muscle breakdown.40) What is the best type of stretching for runners? Static stretching Dynamic stretching Ballistic stretching Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching41) Why are women who stop menstruating at a greater risk for running-related bone injuries? They have low progesterone levels. They have low estrogen levels. They have high calcium levels. They have low calcium levels.42) Many runners, especially new ones, get out of breath when they run and perceive their breathing to limit their ability to keep running. What would you say to a client who says she’s out of breath? Being out of breath has more to do with the need to exhale carbon dioxide than with inhaling oxygen. When you’re out of breath at a low intensity, that means your cardiovascular system is out of shape and that getting in better shape by being consistent with your training will increase the intensity at which carbon dioxide accumulates, so you’ll breathe more easily. Being out of breath means you need to inhale more oxygen. Take deeper breaths when you run. The faster you run, the harder you breathe. Embrace it because it means you’re working hard. Being out of breath means lactic acid is accumulating in your muscles and you should stop to catch your breath.43) Which one of these is NOT a reason why running burns a lot of calories and helps people lose and maintain weight? Running lowers glycogen level, so the carbs you eat get stored as glycogen rather than as fat. Running uses many muscles that require energy. Running is weight-bearing, and it’s physically stressful for a runner to be overweight. Running suppresses your appetite, so you eat fewer calories.44) Why is anemia more common among female runners? Because women lose iron every month during their periods. Because women have higher estrogen levels than men. Because women have high progesterone levels than men. Because women are more likely to be vegetarian and don’t get enough iron in their diets.45) Your client Sally, who sells sea shells by the seashore, wants to train for her first half-marathon. She currently runs 3 miles (5 km) 3 times per week for a total of 9 miles (15 km) per week. What is your strategy to help her run a half-marathon? (1) Slowly increase her weekly volume by adding a fourth day of running per week; (2) continue to increase her weekly volume by making each run longer than 3 miles (5 km); (3) make one run each week longer than all the others; (4) add some more quality running into her schedule one day per week. (1) Add interval training into her program to increase her speed; (2) increase her weekly volume to 30 miles (48 km) per week; (3) have her do one long run, one interval workout, and one tempo run each week; (4) make sure she covers at least 13 miles (21 km) in training before running the half-marathon. (1) Slowly increase her weekly volume by adding a fourth day of running per week; (2) add interval training to increase her speed; (3) make one run each week longer than all the others; (4) tell her to consume carbohydrates when she runs. (1) Make one run each week longer than all the others; (2) include plyometric training into her program; (3) add strength training into her program; (4) increase her runs from 3 miles (5 km) per run to 5 miles (8 km) per run.46) Where should a runner’s foot land? Directly in front of his center of gravity. Directly underneath his center of gravity. Directly behind his center of gravity. Directly to the side of his center of gravity.47) How do you increase a runner’s stride length? Increase hip flexion and reach out with the shin of the leg in front of the body. Take quicker steps. Increase hip extension and push back with greater force against the ground. Increase quad strength for greater forward propulsion.48) Which energy system does a runner rely most on for a 10K? Aerobic system Anaerobic glycolysis Phosphagen system Equal use of aerobic system and phosphagen system49) What type of running trains the fast-twitch B muscle fibers? long runs short, fast sprints lactate threshold runs VO2max intervals50) Jason wants to improve his VO2max. Which one of these workouts would be best for him to do? 5 x 3 minutes @ 95-100% max heart rate with 3-minute jog recovery 10 x 30 seconds all-out with 5-minute jog recovery 15-mile (24 km) continuous run 3 x 6 minutes @ 85% max heart rate with 3-minute jog recovery51) Which one of these describes an important principle of training? Run as hard as you can to force adaptations. Run as slow as you can to meet the purpose of the workout. Run intervals at least twice per week for maximum benefit. Stretch before you run.52) Which one of these is not an intrinsic factor of running injuries? age sex lack of running experience intensity53) When training for a marathon, what is a good rule of thumb for when a runner should do his or her last long run? 1 week before the marathon. 2-3 weeks before the marathon. A month before the marathon. At least 6 weeks before the marathon.54) What are the most important nutrients a runner needs to recover as quickly as possible from long or intense workouts? carbohydrate & protein carbohydrate & fat protein & fat fat & amino acids55) Julie wants to improve her lactate threshold so she can sustain a faster pace in her upcoming half-marathon. Which one of these workouts would be best for her to do? 5 x 3 minutes @ 95-100% max heart rate with 3-minute jog recovery 10 x 30 seconds all-out with 5-minute jog recovery 15-mile (24 km) continuous run 3 x 6 minutes @ 85% max heart rate with 1-minute jog recovery56) Why does downhill running cause muscle soreness? very stressful on the knees you run faster when running downhill it includes a lot of eccentric contractions it includes a lot of concentric contractions57) Which one of these does NOT positively affect running economy? biomechanics and motor unit recruitment proportion of fast-twitch muscle fibers capillary and mitochondrial density low body weight58) Which one of these changes occur during a woman’s first trimester of pregnancy? 10-15 beats per minute increase in resting heart rate 10 percent decrease in stroke volume 2-degree increase in core body temperature 20-milliliter decrease in blood volume59) Which of these conditions would not limit or prevent a woman from running during pregnancy? significant heart and lung disease persistent bleeding in second and third trimesters ruptured membranes increase in cardiac output60) At what point of a female runner’s menstrual cycle is body temperature the highest? At the beginning of the follicular phase, when estrogen is high. At the end of the luteal phase, when progesterone is low. In the middle of the follicular phase, when estrogen is low. In the middle of the luteal phase, when progesterone is high.61) Why do female runners have a greater risk for knee injuries than male runners? Women have a more pronounced angle between the pelvis and the knee (Q-angle), which can cause lateral movement of the patella. Women have less muscle mass surrounding the knee to protect it. Women pronate more than men, which places more stress on the knee. Women store less calcium than men, making their bones more susceptible to injury.62) Your 45-year-old client Bob is having a mid-life crisis and wants to run a marathon in 6 months. He hasn’t run since high school. What do you tell him? That’s a great goal! Running a marathon is a long way to run and I want to make sure you do it safely so you can enjoy the experience. Let’s start running a couple of days per week, increase a little at a time, and chart your progress and then choose a marathon that is safe for you to do. Great! Let’s start training! Six months gives us just enough time to get you ready for a marathon. You’ll need to reach at least 20 miles (32 kilometers) a couple of weeks before the marathon, so we’ll start with 3 miles (5 km) and increase the length of your long run each week until we hit 20 miles (32 km). I’m proud of you, Bob. We can start by mixing walking and running since you haven’t run in a long time. Since six months isn’t that far off, we’ll include some interval training into your program to increase your fitness fast. 63) What regulates metabolism? oxygen and carbon dioxide lactic acid the amount of muscle a person has enzymes and oxygen64) When starting with a new client who wants to run, what is the first step in designing a training program for him/her? Establish client’s goals. Plot out the days of the week and determine what he/she will do on each day. Determine periods of emphasis or maintenance of each training variable. Design specific workouts.65) When designing a training program for a runner, what is the typical order of training phases in a linear periodization model? Speed phase, speed endurance phase, aerobic capacity phase, aerobic strength phase Aerobic capacity phase, aerobic strength phase, speed endurance phase, speed phase Aerobic capacity phase, aerobic strength phase, speed phase, speed endurance phase Aerobic capacity phase, speed endurance phase, aerobic strength phase, speed phase 66) Why does heart rate rise when running on a hot day? Increased sweating causes a drop in blood volume, so heart rate rises to compensate in order to maintain blood pressure and cardiac output. Heart rate doesn’t rise on a hot day. Muscles need more blood on hot days to deliver more oxygen. The brain needs a greater blood supply on hot days, so heart rate rises to send more blood to the brain. 67) Which of the following variables is the single best predictor of distance running performance? Running speed at VO2max Running speed at lactate (acidosis) threshold Anaerobic capacity Ability to remove lactate from muscles and buffer acidosis68) Which order of workouts are from slowest to fastest pace? Lactate threshold runs, aerobic capacity runs, VO2max intervals, anaerobic glycolytic intervals, phosphagen system intervals VO2max intervals, aerobic capacity runs, anaerobic glycolytic intervals, lactate threshold runs, phosphagen system intervals Aerobic capacity runs, phosphagen system intervals, lactate threshold runs, anaerobic glycolytic intervals, VO2max intervals Aerobic capacity runs, lactate threshold runs, VO2max intervals, anaerobic glycolytic intervals, phosphagen system intervals 69) What are the factors that determine VO2max? Ability to buffer acidosis, lactate threshold speed, total blood volume, max sprinting speed Ability to increase heart rate rapidly, hydrogen ion concentration in blood, muscle mitochondrial density, muscle enzyme activity Max heart rate, max stroke volume, max difference in oxygen content between arterial blood and venous blood Muscles’ store of ATP, heart size, lactate clearance from muscles, max blood pressure70) Which of the following cannot be used to describe the acidosis (lactate) threshold? Fastest pace above which blood and muscle lactate accumulates and acidosis occurs. Fastest pace that can be sustained aerobically. Pace at which aerobic metabolism can’t keep up with the production of pyruvate from glycolysis. Fastest pace above which fat is used for energy.71) Which one of these is not a reason to run easy on easy training days? It decreases the chance of injury. It hastens removal of lactate from the muscles. It enables runners to push harder on their harder training days because they will be less fatigued. It enables runners to increase their weekly mileage.72) Your client Lisa, who recently ran a 10K in 44:15, asks at what pace she should run her acidosis (lactate) threshold runs. What do you tell her? 7:10-7:15 per mile pace (4:29-4:32 per km pace) 6:00-6:10 per mile pace (3:45-3:51 per km pace) 8:00-8:10 per mile pace (5:00-5:06 per km pace) 6:45-6:55 per mile pace (4:13-4:19 per km pace)73) What is the greatest benefit of strength training for a runner? Increase VO2max Increase speed Decrease risk of injury by strengthening weak body part Increase muscle power by adding muscle mass74) Which of these workouts would you use to train a client’s acidosis (lactate) threshold? 5 x 400 meters with 2-minute jog recovery 3 miles (5 km) @ 80-85% max heart rate 10 x 10 seconds fast with 3-minute jog recovery 45 minutes @ 70% max heart rate75) What is a fartlek? A non-structured run during which you pick up the pace at different times, when you reach specific landmarks, or based on how you feel. A recovery strategy for which you consume extra carbohydrate to cause a greater storage of muscle glycogen. A type of workout during which you alternate running fast for 5 minutes and walking for 5 minutes. A training strategy that uses jumping and bounding exercises to increase muscle power. 76) When would you incorporate speed work into a runner’s training program? Before aerobic phase when client is increasing weekly running mileage. During strength training phase when client is increasing muscular strength. During recovery phase between races. After client has built up his/her aerobic endurance and aerobic strength. 77) What is the primary purpose of a long run when preparing for a marathon? To practice marathon pace To stimulate a greater storage of muscle glycogen To practice hydration and fueling strategies To stress the heart for a long period of time78) Which change to an interval workout is the most physically demanding? Increasing the distance (or time) of each work period Increasing the time of each recovery period Reducing the time of each recovery period Increasing the number of repetitions79) For recreational runners, VO2max pace is About 20-25 seconds per mile (12-15 seconds per km) faster than 5K race pace or about 40-45 seconds per mile (25-28 seconds per km) faster than 10K race pace About 20-25 seconds per mile (12-15 seconds per km) slower than 5K race pace or about 40-45 seconds per mile (25-28 seconds per km) slower than 10K race pace The fastest pace that can be maintained for about 30 minutes About 10 seconds per mile (6 seconds per km) faster than half-marathon pace80) Which of the following is not a direct cause of injuries? Increasing weekly mileage quickly Not consuming adequate nutrients Doing a lot of fast running Not getting adequate recovery between workouts81) Which energy system can derive energy from both fat and carbohydrate? Phosphagen system Anaerobic glycolysis Aerobic system Aerobic glycolysis 82) Iliotibial band friction syndrome is a common injury among runners. What is a potential cause of it? Hip and gluteal muscle weakness Too much uphill running Too much running on concrete Flat feet83) Which of the following is not a good strategy to increase bone density? Calcium and vitamin D supplements Extra sleep Strength training Birth-control pills84) Which of the following does not influence how long you taper a client’s training before a race? How much your client ran in the weeks and months prior to the taper Your client’s level of fatigue How quickly your client loses fitness Your client’s resting heart rate upon waking in the morning85) When unfit people first start running, their muscles rely a lot on carbohydrate for energy. With aerobic training, they begin to rely more on fat and less on carbohydrate when running at the same pace. Why does this shift in fuel use happen? Aerobic training stimulates the synthesis of mitochondria, which increases the muscles’ ability to burn fat. Aerobic training stimulates the synthesis of the muscle proteins actin and myosin, which increases the muscles’ ability to burn fat. Aerobic training increases the ability of the heart to pump more fat to the muscles. Aerobic training decreases how much carbohydrate is available, so the muscles rely more on fat for energy.86) Which of the following statements is false about skeletal muscle fibers? Training can change the amount of area that slow-twitch or fast-twitch muscle fibers take up in the muscle. Training can change the number of slow-twitch or fast-twitch muscle fibers. To become a better distance runner, focus on training the characteristics of slow-twitch muscle fibers. Fast-twitch muscle fibers contain more of the enzyme myosin ATPase. 87) What training method would you suggest to a client to increase his or her stride rate? squats calf raises tempo runs short sprints88) Your client recently ran a 5K in 23:54. You decide to have her run a VO2max interval workout next week consisting of 5 x 800 meters at VO2max pace. What is her VO2max pace and what time should she run for each 800-meter rep? 7:00-7:05 mile pace (4:22-4:25 per km pace); 3:30-3:32 per 800 7:24-7:29 mile pace (4:37-4:40 per km pace); 3:42-3:44 per 800 6:45-6:50 mile pace (4:13-4:16 per km pace); 3:23-3:25 per 800 8:00-8:05 mile pace (5:00-5:03 per km pace); 4:00-4:02 per 80089) You have a client who is experiencing pain on the front portion of his heel that gets worse when he runs. It is likely he has iliotibial band friction syndrome shin splints chronic muscle strain plantar fasciitis90) Why should the work periods of a VO2max interval workout not exceed 5 minutes? Because it’s too stressful for the heart. Because stroke volume peaks at 5 minutes. Because any longer than 5 minutes and the pace would have to significantly decrease. Because cardiac output doesn’t improve after 5 minutes.91) With all the attention given to running form, what would you suggest to your clients if they ask how they should run? Tell your clients exactly what their arms and legs should do during each stride. Guide your clients with some generalities about efficient form, show them some running form drills, and explain that, over time and after a lot of training, most runners will adopt a form that is most efficient for them. Tell your clients to buy minimalist shoes so they can start running with a more natural foot strike. Show your clients how the best runners run and tell them to model their running after that.92) Running speed equals stride rate times stride length leg length times stride rate stride rate plus stride length stride length divided by stride rate93) When is/are good time(s) of the month for a female runner to increase her weekly running volume? Weeks 2 and 4 of the menstrual cycle, when estrogen is on the rise. Week 1 of the menstrual cycle, when estrogen is on the rise. Weeks 2 and 4 of the menstrual cycle, when progesterone is on the rise. Week 4 of the menstrual cycle, when progesterone is declining.94) What is the main defining characteristic of a menopausal or post-menopausal runner? higher max heart rate decreased muscle power lower circulating levels of estrogen decreased hip flexibility95) Which of the following would be an ideal post-workout nutritional recovery strategy? Consume a glass of chocolate milk. Consume a protein bar. Consume a glass of water. Consume a vitamin-enriched drink.96) When training a client for a race, how would you plan the training? Focus on each training variable for a set amount of time and continue to increase the training each week until the race. Look at how much time you have before the date of the race, work backwards from the date of the race, find out what your client’s strengths and weaknesses are, plan out how long each cycle of training will be, and decide on which factor(s) to focus on during each cycle. Ask your client what he or she wants to accomplish and then design the workouts to focus on strengthening your client’s weaknesses. Write a plan from the beginning and have your client follow that plan.97) What is the primary metabolic effect of estrogen at a submaximal running pace? Causes a greater reliance on fat Causes a greater reliance on carbohydrates Causes a greater reliance on protein Causes a greater lactate accumulation98) Which method below is a safe yet progressive strategy to increase weekly running volume for 24 weeks? 15-20-25-30-35-40-45-50-55-60-65-70-75-80-85-90-95-100-105-110-115-120-125-130 miles/km 15-20-15-30-40-15-50-40-30-15-35-45-25-40-35-25-45-45-50-20-15-35-25-30 miles/km 15-15-15-10-20-20-20-13-25-25-25-17-30-30-30-20-35-35-35-23-40-40-40-26 miles/km 15-16-17-18-19-20-21-22-23-24-25-26-27-28-29-30-31-32-33-34-35-36-37-38 miles/km99) Which of the following variables explains much of the difference in speed among runners? stride length stride rate heart size leg length100) Your client Jason has been running since he was 11 years old but now is not as young as he used to be. Given what you know about age and training, would you change his training and, if so, how? Yes; Tell him to eat more carbohydrates between hard workouts. No; Tell him age is all in his mind and stop being a baby and run. No; Have him run at a lower heart rate. Yes; Plan more recovery between hard workouts.