You will have 2 hours and 30 minutes to complete this exam. You must answer every question presented. A passing grade is 80% or higher.



1) What regulates metabolism?

2) What is a fartlek?

3) Which of these workouts would you use to train a client’s acidosis (lactate) threshold?

4) What is the greatest benefit of strength training for a runner?

5) Your client Lisa, who recently ran a 10K in 44:15, asks at what pace she should run her acidosis (lactate) threshold runs. What do you tell her?

6) Which one of these is not a reason to run easy on easy training days?

7) Which of the following cannot be used to describe the acidosis (lactate) threshold?

8) What are the factors that determine VO2max?

9) Which order of workouts are from slowest to fastest pace?

10) Which of the following variables is the single best predictor of distance running performance?

11) Why does heart rate rise when running on a hot day?

12) When designing a training program for a runner, what is the typical order of training phases in a linear periodization model?

13) When starting with a new client who wants to run, what is the first step in designing a training program for him/her?

14) When would you incorporate speed work into a runner’s training program?

15) Your 45-year-old client Bob is having a mid-life crisis and wants to run a marathon in 6 months. He hasn’t run since high school. What do you tell him?

16) Why do female runners have a greater risk for knee injuries than male runners?

17) At what point of a female runner’s menstrual cycle is body temperature the highest?

18) Which of these conditions would not limit or prevent a woman from running during pregnancy?

19) Which one of these changes occur during a woman’s first trimester of pregnancy?

20) Which one of these does NOT positively affect running economy?

21) Why does downhill running cause muscle soreness?

22) Julie wants to improve her lactate threshold so she can sustain a faster pace in her upcoming half-marathon. Which one of these workouts would be best for her to do?

23) What are the most important nutrients a runner needs to recover as quickly as possible from long or intense workouts?

24) When training for a marathon, what is a good rule of thumb for when a runner should do his or her last long run?

25) Which one of these is not an intrinsic factor of running injuries?

26) Your client recently ran a 5K in 23:54. You decide to have her run a VO2max interval workout next week consisting of 5 x 800 meters at VO2max pace. What is her VO2max pace and what time should she run for each 800-meter rep?

27) Your client Jason has been running since he was 11 years old but now is not as young as he used to be. Given what you know about age and training, would you change his training and, if so, how?

28) Which of the following variables explains much of the difference in speed among runners?

29) Which method below is a safe yet progressive strategy to increase weekly running volume for 24 weeks?

30) What is the primary metabolic effect of estrogen at a submaximal running pace?

31) When training a client for a race, how would you plan the training?

32) Which of the following would be an ideal post-workout nutritional recovery strategy?

33) What is the main defining characteristic of a menopausal or post-menopausal runner?

34) When is/are good time(s) of the month for a female runner to increase her weekly running volume?

35) Running speed equals

36) With all the attention given to running form, what would you suggest to your clients if they ask how they should run?

37) Why should the work periods of a VO2max interval workout not exceed 5 minutes?

38) You have a client who is experiencing pain on the front portion of his heel that gets worse when he runs. It is likely he has

39) Which one of these describes an important principle of training?

40) What training method would you suggest to a client to increase his or her stride rate?

41) Which of the following statements is false about skeletal muscle fibers?

42) When unfit people first start running, their muscles rely a lot on carbohydrate for energy. With aerobic training, they begin to rely more on fat and less on carbohydrate when running at the same pace. Why does this shift in fuel use happen?

43) Which of the following does not influence how long you taper a client’s training before a race?

44) Which of the following is not a good strategy to increase bone density?

45) Iliotibial band friction syndrome is a common injury among runners. What is a potential cause of it?

46) Which energy system can derive energy from both fat and carbohydrate?

47) Which of the following is not a direct cause of injuries?

48) For recreational runners, VO2max pace is

49) Which change to an interval workout is the most physically demanding?

50) What is the primary purpose of a long run when preparing for a marathon?

51) Why are recovery intervals so important during an interval workout?

52) What is the purpose of anaerobic training?

53) How does increasing weekly running volume (i.e., number of miles/kilometers) increase VO2max?

54) Which variables can be manipulated with interval training?

55) The most important determinant of BMD in women is

56) Which 3 factors (referred to as the female athlete triad) increase a female runner's chance for bone injuries?

57) Which of the following does not describe interval training?

58) How much does a client need to drink during exercise to prevent significant dehydration?

59) Which of the following workouts would best train the aerobic system?

60) Which of the following workouts would best train anaerobic glycolysis?

61) If someone is training for a race but is going on vacation and is not able to maintain his or her consistent training while away, which of the following factors should be maintained to maintain fitness?

62) Which of the following is not true regarding periodization?

63) Exercise performance declines with how much of a percent loss of body weight due to fluid loss?

64) Which of these does NOT include a strategy to burn more calories?

65) Running at the acidosis (lactate) threshold would correspond to:

66) Why do slow-twitch fibers have many capillaries?

67) Improvements in fitness occur

68) Running economy is

69) Which one of these does not happen when running out of carbohydrate on long runs?

70) The following are all adaptations to endurance training except

71) What is the most potent method for improving VO2max?

72) The acidosis (lactate) threshold is

73) Following a very long run, muscle soreness is caused by

74) What is daily resting metabolic rate for most people?

75) Running is the second most popular form of physical activity (second to walking), however many people say they can’t run. If a client says to you, “I can’t run,” how would you respond?

76) What does the term polarity mean in reference to training?

77) Jason wants to improve his VO2max. Which one of these workouts would be best for him to do?

78) What type of running trains the fast-twitch B muscle fibers?

79) Which energy system does a runner rely most on for a 10K?

80) How do you increase a runner’s stride length?

81) Where should a runner’s foot land?

82) Your client Sally, who sells sea shells by the seashore, wants to train for her first half-marathon. She currently runs 3 miles (5 km) 3 times per week for a total of 9 miles (15 km) per week. What is your strategy to help her run a half-marathon?

83) Why is anemia more common among female runners?

84) Which one of these is NOT a reason why running burns a lot of calories and helps people lose and maintain weight?

85) Many runners, especially new ones, get out of breath when they run and perceive their breathing to limit their ability to keep running. What would you say to a client who says she’s out of breath?

86) Why are women who stop menstruating at a greater risk for running-related bone injuries?

87) What is the best type of stretching for runners?

88) What is the most important strategic issue in the marathon?

89) What are the 3 major types of running shoes?

90) What is the best way to increase your client’s weekly running volume (# of miles/kilometers)?

91) What is the purpose of a VO2max interval workout?

92) What are the benefits of running more miles/kilometers per week to improve running performance?

93) What are the main causes of fatigue in the marathon?

94) What is/are the most important factor(s) when choosing running shoes?

95) What are the most important factors to focus on when training for a half-marathon or marathon?

96) What is the most common reason runners get injured?

97) What is VO2max?

98) What is the main effect of an enlarged left ventricle caused by endurance training?

99) The muscles’ primary fuel when running faster than the acidosis (lactate) threshold is

100) What are the three main physiological determinants of distance running performance?

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